Radiometric dating uses what isotopes

09-Sep-2017 19:57 by 7 Comments

Radiometric dating uses what isotopes

Nuclear chemists were involved in the chemical purification of plutonium obtained from uranium targets that had been irradiated in reactors.They also developed chemical separation techniques to isolate radioactive isotopes for industrial and medical uses from the fission products wastes associated with plutonium production for weapons.

In 1911 Ernest Rutherford asked a student, George de Hevesy, to separate a lead impurity from a decay product of uranium, radium-D.

Today, scientists ranging from astrophysicists to marine biologists use the principles of radiometric dating to study problems as diverse as determining the age of the universe to defining food chains in the oceans.

In addition, newly developed analytical techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have allowed nuclear chemists to extend the principles of radiometric dating to nonradioactive isotopes in order to study modern and ancient processes that are affected by isotopic fractionation.

This isotopic fractionation results from temperature differences in the environment in which the material was formed (at a given temperature, the lighter isotope will be very slightly more reactive than the heavier isotope), or from different chemical reaction sequences.

The newest area in which nuclear chemists play an important role is the field of nuclear medicine.

Nuclear chemistry is the study of the chemical and physical properties of elements as influenced by changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus.

Modern nuclear chemistry, sometimes referred to as radiochemistry, has become very interdisciplinary in its applications, ranging from the study of the formation of the elements in the universe to the design of radioactive drugs for diagnostic medicine.

Diagnosis involves use of the radiopharmaceutical to generate an image of the tumor or organ to identify problems that may be missed by x rays or physical examinations.

Treatment involves using radioactive compounds at carefully controlled doses to destroy tumors.

Nuclear medicine is a rapidly expanding branch of health care that uses short-lived radioactive isotopes to diagnose illnesses and to treat specific diseases.

Nuclear chemists synthesize drugs from radionuclides produced in nuclear reactors or accelerators that are injected into the patient and will then seek out specific organs or cancerous tumors.

Through tedious chemical separation procedures involving precipitation of different chemical fractions, Marie was able to show that a separated fraction that had the chemical properties of bismuth and another fraction that had the chemical properties of barium were much more radioactive per unit mass than the original uranium ore.